- Carotid Angiography
This is an imaging procedure, which involves inserting a catheter into a blood vessel in the arm or leg and guiding it to the carotid arteries with the aid of a special X-ray machine. Contrast dye is injected through the catheter so that X-ray movies of your carotid arteries (the arteries that supply your brain with oxygen-rich blood) can be taken.
- Coronary Angiography
Coronary angiography is an X-ray examination of the blood vessels or chambers of the heart. A very small tube (catheter) is inserted into a blood vessel in your groin or arm. The tip of the tube is positioned either in the heart or at the beginning of the arteries supplying the heart, and a special fluid (called a contrast medium or dye) is injected. This fluid is visible by X-ray, and the pictures that are obtained are called angiograms.
Another name for this test is coronary arteriography. More Info
- Coronary Angioplasty (PTCA or PCI)
Coronary angioplasty (AN-jee-oh-plas-tee) is a medical procedure used to restore blood flow through a narrowed or blocked artery in the heart. The arteries of the heart (the coronary arteries) can become narrowed and blocked due to buildup of a material called plaque on their inner walls. This narrowing reduces the flow of blood through the artery and can lead, over time, to coronary artery disease and heart attack. In angioplasty, a thin tube with a balloon or other device on the end is first threaded through a blood vessel in the arm or groin (upper thigh) up to the site of a narrowing or blockage in a coronary artery. Once in place, the balloon is then inflated to push the plaque outward against the wall of the artery, widening the artery and restoring the flow of blood through it.
Other Names for Coronary angioplasty are 1. Percutaneous coronary intervention, 2. Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty 3. Balloon angioplasty,4. Coronary artery angioplasty More Info
- Coronary Artery Bypass Graft (CABG)
CABG reroutes, or "bypasses," blood around clogged arteries to improve blood flow and oxygen to the heart.
Why is this surgery done?
The arteries that bring blood to the heart muscle (coronary arteries) can become clogged by plaque (a buildup of fat, cholesterol and other substances). This can slow or stop blood flow through the heart's blood vessels, leading to chest pain or a heart attack. Increasing blood flow to the heart muscle can relieve chest pain and reduce the risk of heart attack.
How is coronary bypass done?
Surgeons take a segment of a healthy blood vessel from another part of the body and make a detour around the blocked part of the coronary artery.
- Implantable Cardioverter and Defibrillator (ICD)
An implantable cardioverter defibrillator is used in patients at risk for recurrent, sustained ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation.
The device is connected to leads positioned inside the heart or on its surface. These leads are used to deliver electrical shocks, sense the cardiac rhythm and sometimes pace the heart, as needed. The various leads are tunnelled to a pulse generator, which is implanted in a pouch beneath the skin of the chest or abdomen. These generators are typically a little larger than a wallet and have electronics that automatically monitor and treat heart rhythms recognized as abnormal. Newer devices are smaller and have simpler lead systems. They can be installed through blood vessels, eliminating the need for open chest surgery.
When an implantable cardioverter defibrillator detects ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation, it shocks the heart to restore the normal rhythm. New devices also provide overdrive pacing to electrically convert a sustained ventricular tachycardia, and "backup" pacing if bradycardia occurs. They also offer a host of other sophisticated functions (such as storage of detected arrhythmic events and the ability to do "noninvasive" electrophysiologic testing).
Implantable cardioverter defibrillators have been very useful in preventing sudden death in patients with known, sustained ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation. Studies are now being done to find out how best to use them and whether they may have a role in preventing cardiac arrest in high-risk patients who haven't had, but are at risk for, life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias.
According to the American Heart Association Heart and Stroke Statistical Update, in 1998 (the most recent statistics available) there were 26,000 ICD procedures.
Source:American Heart Association
Pacemakers are battery-powered implantable devices that function to electrically stimulate the heart to contract and thus to pump blood throughout the body. Pacemakers consist of a pager-sized housing device which contains a battery and the electronic circuitry that runs the pacemaker, and one or two long thin wires that travel through a vein in the chest to the heart. Pacemakers are usually implanted in patients in whom the heart's own "spark plug" or electrical system is no longer functioning normally.
- Paediatric Cardiac Surgery
Children aren't simply miniature people who suffer the same diseases adults do, but on a smaller scale. Rather, they have their own specific afflictions and abnormalities. Diagnosing and treating children's heart diseases requires specialized knowledge and a dedicated approach to care.
Source: Standford school of medicine
- Valve Replacement - single valve
Valvuloplasty is used to widen a stiff or narrowed heart valve (stenotic heart valve). A catheter is guided through the heart and positioned through the diseased heart valve. Balloons on the catheter are inflated, enlarging the opening through the valve and improving blood flow through the heart and to the rest of the body. This allows the heart to pump more effectively, reduces pressures in the heart and lungs, and reduces symptoms.
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