Healthbase Medical Tourism Dental Tourism - Healthcare Beyond Boundaries Healthcare Beyond Boundaries™
1-888-691-4584
1-617-564-1795
Login      Bookmark this page   Sitemap   Increase the font size Decrease the font size
 
Share: facebook

CERVICAL CANCER or CANCER OF THE CERVIX

What is a cervix?

Female reproductive system 

Anatomy of female reproductive system

The cervix is the lower part of the uterus (neck of the uterus), the place where a baby grows during pregnancy.

What is cervical cancer?

Cervical cancer is cancer that starts in the cervix, the lower part of the uterus (womb) that opens at the top of the vagina.

illustration of cervical cancer 

Illustration of cervical cancer

The development of cervical cancer is gradual and begins as a pre-cancerous condition called dysplasia. It is usually a slow-growing cancer and if caught early can be successfully treated.

Undetected, pre-cancerous changes can develop into cervical cancer and spread to the bladder, intestines, lungs, and liver. It can take years for pre-cancerous changes to turn into cervical cancer.

Cervical cancer is the third most common type of cancer in women. Approximately 2-3% of all women over age 40 years will develop some form of cervical cancer.

Cervical cancer prevention and vaccine

It usually takes several years for normal cells in the cervix to turn into cancer cells. Abnormal cells can be found by doing a Pap Smear test - examining cells from the cervix under a microscope. By getting regular Pap tests and pelvic exams you can find and treat changing cells before they turn into cancer.

A vaccine for girls and young women protects against the four types of HPV that cause most cervical cancers. Ask a gynaecologist about cervical cancer vaccine.

Causes and risk factors of cervical cancer

Cervical cancer is caused by several types of a virus called human papillomaviruses (HPV). HPV spreads through sexual contact. There are many different types of HPV, and many do not cause problems. Most women`s bodies are able to fight this infection. But sometimes the virus leads to cancer.

Risk factors for cervical cancer include:

  • Having sex at an early age
  • Multiple sexual partners
  • Sexual partners who have multiple partners or who participate in high-risk sexual activities
  • Women whose mothers took the drug DES (diethylstilbestrol) during pregnancy in the early 1960s to prevent miscarriage
  • Weakened immune system
  • Poor economic status (may not be able to afford regular Pap smears)
  • Smoking
  • Having many children
  • Using birth control pills for a long time
  • HIV infection

Signs and symptoms of cervical cancer

Patients with cervical cancer do not usually have problems until the cancer is advanced and has spread. Symptoms that may occur can include:

  • Continuous vaginal discharge, which may be pale, watery, pink, brown, bloody, or foul-smelling
  • Abnormal vaginal bleeding between periods, after intercourse, or after menopause
  • Periods become heavier and last longer than usual
  • Any bleeding after menopause

Symptoms of advanced cervical cancer may include:

  • Loss of appetite
  • Weight loss
  • Fatigue
  • Pelvic pain
  • Back pain
  • Leg pain
  • Single swollen leg
  • Heavy bleeding from the vagina
  • Leaking of urine or feces from the vagina
  • Bone fractures

Diagnostic tests and exams for cervical cancer

If abnormal changes are found by a Pap smear, the cervix is usually examined under magnification. This is called colposcopy. Pieces of tissue are surgically removed (biopsied) during this procedure and sent to a laboratory for examination.  

Other tests may include:

  • Endocervical curettage (ECC) to examine the opening of the cervix
  • Cone biopsy

If the woman is diagnosed with cervical cancer, more tests are needed to determine how far the cancer has spread, i.e. staging the cancer. Tests may include:

  • CT scan
  • Cystoscopy
  • MRI
  • Chest x-ray
  • Intravenous pyelogram (IVP)

Treatment of cervical cancer

Treatment choice depends on:

  • stage of the cancer
  • size and shape of the tumor
  • age and general health of the woman
  • her desire to have children in the future

Treatments for cervical cancer include:

  • LEEP (Loop Electrosurgical Excision Procedure) - uses electricity to remove abnormal tissue to treat cervical cancer in early stage
  • Cryotherapy - freezes abnormal cells to treat cervical cancer in early stage
  • Laser therapy - uses light to burn abnormal tissue to treat cervical cancer in early stage
  • Hysterectomy - removal of the uterus but not the ovaries is done in women who have repeated LEEP procedures
  • Radical hysterectomy - removal of uterus and much of the surrounding tissues including internal lymph nodes and upper part of the vagina to treat cervical disease in the more advanced stage
  • Pelvic exenteration - removal of all of the organs of the pelvis, including the bladder and rectum, to treat cervical cancer in the extreme case
  • Radiation therapy - to treat cancer that has spread beyond the pelvis, or cancer that has returned
  • Chemotherapy - use of drugs to kill cancer. Sometimes radiation and chemotherapy are used before or after surgery.

Related links

Free Quote
Free Quote
Healthbase, an award-winning* medical tourism facilitator in USA, is the trusted source for global medical and dental choices, connecting patients to leading healthcare facilities worldwide. We arrange a variety of medical tourism services from basic consultations to full service treatment abroad. We help you to take care of all your medical tourism details from arranging the surgery and financing options to visas, travel, lodging and tourism.

Healthbase caters to the needs of individual consumers, self-funded businesses, insurance carriers, benefit consultants, insurance agents, and third party administrators seeking affordable medical travel and dental travel options. Our state-of-the-art, easy to use, information rich web-based system makes it easy to coordinate international medical care including necessary travel and accommodation for patients and their companions, all at one place.

The cost of surgical care at our ever growing network of affiliated institutions is typically a fraction of the cost of care in the U.S. with equal or superior outcomes. Healthbase arranges first class services for patients at major internationally accredited hospitals in Thailand, India, Singapore, Malaysia, Philippines, South Korea, Turkey, Belgium, Hungary, Costa Rica, Panama, Brazil, Mexico, USA and is expanding to Canada, UK, Jordan,Taiwan, Argentina, New Zealand, Australia, El Salvador and Guatemala.

We offer over two hundred medical, dental and cosmetic procedures in various categories: Orthopedic procedures such as hip replacement, Birmingham hip resurfacing, artificial knee replacement, rotator cuff repair, knee surgery; Cardiac and Vascular procedures like heart bypass (multiple coronary artery bypass graft or CABG), aortic aneurysm repair, heart valve repair, heat valve replacement, angioplasty, RF Ablation; Spinal procedures such as spine fusion, laminectomy, disc replacement; Weight-loss procedures like gastric bypass, lap band, gastric sleeve; Eye procedures like LASIK; Cosmetic and Plastic surgery procedures such as breast augmentation, face lift, rhinoplasty (nose surgery), liposuction; Dental procedures such as orthognathic surgery, dental bridges, dental implants, dental crowns; dental veneers; and hundreds of other procedures in the departments of Urology, General surgery, Wellness and many more. The savings are up to 80% of typical US hospital prices.

Medical Tourism, also termed as Medical Travel, Health Travel, Health Tourism, Global Healthcare, Medical Vacation, Medical Value Travel, Medical Treatment Abroad, International Medical, Surgical Tourism, Surgery Abroad, Surgical Trip, Healthcare Abroad, Medical Outsourcing, offshore Medical and Overseas Medical, is the act of traveling abroad to receive medical, dental and cosmetic care. Significantly lower cost for best practice care is usually the primary motivation behind medical tourism although some medical tourists go abroad for immediate availability of procedures and to seek treatments that are not available in their home country. Patients frequently also take advantage of the opportunity to vacation and tour inexpensively in the foreign country while they are visiting for health care. Signup to know more about medical or dental tourism.

* - Awarded the "Best Website for Accessing International Medical Information for Patients/Consumers" by Consumer Health World 2007.


Share:facebook
Trusted Source for Medical Tourism and Dental Tourism

Medical Tourism Singapore | Medical Tourism India | Medical Tourism Thailand | Medical Tourism Mexico | Medical Tourism Turkey
Medical Tourism Costa Rica | Medical Tourism Panama | Medical Tourism Belgium | Medical Tourism Europe | Medical Tourism Asia | Medical Tourism Philippines | Medical Tourism In The United States Of America | Medical Tourism Latin America | Medical Tourism North America | Medical Tourism Brazil | Medical Tourism Spain | Medical Tourism New Zealand | Medical Tourism South Korea | Medical Tourism Philippines | Medical Tourism Jordan | Medical Tourism Virtual Tours | Medical Tourism Translation | Medical Tourism Patient Testimonials | Frequently Asked Questions - Medical Tourism | Resources - Medical Tourism | Medical Tourism Blog | Medical Tourism Tips | Medical Tourism Guide | Medical Tourism - Medical Outsourcing | Top 10 Reasons Why Medical Tourism is Popular | Medical Tourism Information | Medical Tourism Map | Medical Tourism - Conferences | Dental Tourism | Domestic Medical Tourism | Medical Tourism Association | Medical Tourism Plans For Insurers | Medical Tourism Plans For Employers | Medical Tourism Travel Insurance | Medical Tourism Flight Status | Medical Tourism Passport Status | Medical Tourism Airlines Contact Numbers | Medical Tourism Financing | Medical Tourism World Clock | Medical Tourism Currency Converter | Medical Tourism Conference 2008 | Medical Tourism Patient Stories | Medical Tourism Travel
The first place winner of the 2007 Consumer Health World Award in the category of Best Website for Accessing International Medical Information for Patients/Consumers
©2006 Healthbase Online Inc. All rights reserved. | About us | Link to us | Terms and Conditions | Privacy Policy | Credits | Feedback | Resources
1-617-564-1795     Best viewed with Firefox1.5+ and IE6 | Sitemap | Powered by Healthbase.com
Please consider the environment before printing this page