Healthbase Medical Tourism Dental Tourism - Healthcare Beyond Boundaries Healthcare Beyond Boundaries™
Login      Bookmark this page   Sitemap   Increase the font size Decrease the font size
Share: facebook


What is a vagina?

anatomy of female reproductive system 

Illustration of anatomy of female reproductive system

Vagina is the female body part that connects the womb (uterus) and cervix to the outside of the body. It is a muscular tube lined with mucus membranes. The vagina allows for the flow of menstrual blood and for sexual intercourse, and is the passageway through which a baby is born.

What is vaginal cancer?

Vaginal cancer is a rare type of cancer in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the vagina. It is more common in women 60 and older.

There are two main types of vaginal cancer:

  • Squamous cell carcinoma: Cancer that forms in squamous cells, the thin, flat cells lining the vagina. Squamous cell vaginal cancer spreads slowly and usually stays near the vagina, but may spread to the lungs and liver. This is the most common type of vaginal cancer. It is found most often in women aged 60 or older.
  • Adenocarcinoma: Cancer that begins in glandular (secretory) cells. Glandular cells in the lining of the vagina make and release fluids such as mucus. Adenocarcinoma is more likely than squamous cell cancer to spread to the lungs and lymph nodes. It is found most often in women aged 30 or younger.

Risk factors of vaginal cancer

  • Being aged 60 or older.
  • Being exposed to DES while in the mother`s womb. Doctors prescribed DES in the 1950`s to prevent miscarriages. Women who were exposed to DES before birth have an increased risk of developing vaginal cancer. Some of these women develop a rare form of cancer called clear cell adenocarcinoma.
  • Having human papilloma virus (HPV) infection.
  • Having a history of abnormal cells in the cervix or cervical cancer.

Signs and symptoms of vaginal cancer

Vaginal cancer often does not have early symptoms. A Pap test can find abnormal cells that may be cancer. Some of the symptoms may include:

  • Bleeding or discharge not related to menstrual periods
  • Pain during sexual intercourse
  • Pelvic pain
  • A vaginal lump

Diagnostic tests and exams for vaginal cancer

  • Physical exam and history
  • Pelvic exam
  • Pap smear
  • Biopsy
  • Colposcopy

If vaginal cancer is detected, further tests might be done to find out if cancer has metastasized i.e. spread to other parts of the body. This is called cancer staging. The following procedures may be used in the staging process:

  • Biopsy
  • Chest x-ray
  • Cystoscopy
  • Ureteroscopy
  • Proctoscopy
  • CT scan (CAT scan)
  • MRI
  • Lymphangiogram

Treatment of vaginal cancer

Vaginal cancer can often be cured in its early stages. Treatment options depend on the following:

  • The stage, size, and location of the cancer.
  • Whether the tumor cells are squamous cell or adenocarcinoma.
  • Whether the patient has a uterus or has had a hysterectomy (removal of uterus).
  • Whether the patient has had past radiation treatment to the pelvis.

Treatment options for vaginal cancer include:

  • Surgery: Surgery is the most common treatment of vaginal cancer. The following surgical procedures may be used:
    • Laser surgery for removal of a surface lesion such as a tumor.
    • Wide local excision for taking out the cancer and some of the healthy tissue around it.
    • Vaginectomy to remove all or part of the vagina.
    • Total hysterectomy to remove the uterus, including the cervix. Various approaches to hysterectomy are: vaginal hysterectomy, abdominal hysterectomy and total laparoscopic hysterectomy.
    • Lymphadenectomy to remove lymph nodes for checking under a microscope for signs of cancer.
    • Pelvic exenteration for removal of the lower colon, rectum, and bladder along with the removal of the cervix, vagina, ovaries, and nearby lymph nodes. Artificial openings (stoma) are made for urine and stool to flow from the body into a collection bag.
  • Radiation therapy: Use of high-energy x-rays or other types of radiation to kill cancer cells or keep them from growing. Can be internal radiation therapy or external radiation therapy.
  • Chemotherapy: Use of drugs to stop the growth of cancer cells, either by killing the cells or by stopping them from dividing.

Related links

Free Quote
Free Quote
Healthbase, an award-winning* medical tourism facilitator in USA, is the trusted source for global medical and dental choices, connecting patients to leading healthcare facilities worldwide. We arrange a variety of medical tourism services from basic consultations to full service treatment abroad. We help you to take care of all your medical tourism details from arranging the surgery and financing options to visas, travel, lodging and tourism.

Healthbase caters to the needs of individual consumers, self-funded businesses, insurance carriers, benefit consultants, insurance agents, and third party administrators seeking affordable medical travel and dental travel options. Our state-of-the-art, easy to use, information rich web-based system makes it easy to coordinate international medical care including necessary travel and accommodation for patients and their companions, all at one place.

The cost of surgical care at our ever growing network of affiliated institutions is typically a fraction of the cost of care in the U.S. with equal or superior outcomes. Healthbase arranges first class services for patients at major internationally accredited hospitals in Thailand, India, Singapore, Malaysia, Philippines, South Korea, Turkey, Belgium, Hungary, Costa Rica, Panama, Brazil, Mexico, USA and is expanding to Canada, UK, Jordan,Taiwan, Argentina, New Zealand, Australia, El Salvador and Guatemala.

We offer over two hundred medical, dental and cosmetic procedures in various categories: Orthopedic procedures such as hip replacement, Birmingham hip resurfacing, artificial knee replacement, rotator cuff repair, knee surgery; Cardiac and Vascular procedures like heart bypass (multiple coronary artery bypass graft or CABG), aortic aneurysm repair, heart valve repair, heat valve replacement, angioplasty, RF Ablation; Spinal procedures such as spine fusion, laminectomy, disc replacement; Weight-loss procedures like gastric bypass, lap band, gastric sleeve; Eye procedures like LASIK; Cosmetic and Plastic surgery procedures such as breast augmentation, face lift, rhinoplasty (nose surgery), liposuction; Dental procedures such as orthognathic surgery, dental bridges, dental implants, dental crowns; dental veneers; and hundreds of other procedures in the departments of Urology, General surgery, Wellness and many more. The savings are up to 80% of typical US hospital prices.

Medical Tourism, also termed as Medical Travel, Health Travel, Health Tourism, Global Healthcare, Medical Vacation, Medical Value Travel, Medical Treatment Abroad, International Medical, Surgical Tourism, Surgery Abroad, Surgical Trip, Healthcare Abroad, Medical Outsourcing, offshore Medical and Overseas Medical, is the act of traveling abroad to receive medical, dental and cosmetic care. Significantly lower cost for best practice care is usually the primary motivation behind medical tourism although some medical tourists go abroad for immediate availability of procedures and to seek treatments that are not available in their home country. Patients frequently also take advantage of the opportunity to vacation and tour inexpensively in the foreign country while they are visiting for health care. Signup to know more about medical or dental tourism.

* - Awarded the "Best Website for Accessing International Medical Information for Patients/Consumers" by Consumer Health World 2007.

Trusted Source for Medical Tourism and Dental Tourism

Medical Tourism Singapore | Medical Tourism India | Medical Tourism Thailand | Medical Tourism Mexico | Medical Tourism Turkey
Medical Tourism Costa Rica | Medical Tourism Panama | Medical Tourism Belgium | Medical Tourism Europe | Medical Tourism Asia | Medical Tourism Philippines | Medical Tourism In The United States Of America | Medical Tourism Latin America | Medical Tourism North America | Medical Tourism Brazil | Medical Tourism Spain | Medical Tourism New Zealand | Medical Tourism South Korea | Medical Tourism Philippines | Medical Tourism Jordan | Medical Tourism Virtual Tours | Medical Tourism Translation | Medical Tourism Patient Testimonials | Frequently Asked Questions - Medical Tourism | Resources - Medical Tourism | Medical Tourism Blog | Medical Tourism Tips | Medical Tourism Guide | Medical Tourism - Medical Outsourcing | Top 10 Reasons Why Medical Tourism is Popular | Medical Tourism Information | Medical Tourism Map | Medical Tourism - Conferences | Dental Tourism | Domestic Medical Tourism | Medical Tourism Association | Medical Tourism Plans For Insurers | Medical Tourism Plans For Employers | Medical Tourism Travel Insurance | Medical Tourism Flight Status | Medical Tourism Passport Status | Medical Tourism Airlines Contact Numbers | Medical Tourism Financing | Medical Tourism World Clock | Medical Tourism Currency Converter | Medical Tourism Conference 2008 | Medical Tourism Patient Stories | Medical Tourism Travel
The first place winner of the 2007 Consumer Health World Award in the category of Best Website for Accessing International Medical Information for Patients/Consumers
©2006 Healthbase Online Inc. All rights reserved. | About us | Link to us | Terms and Conditions | Privacy Policy | Credits | Feedback | Resources
1-617-564-1795     Best viewed with Firefox1.5+ and IE6 | Sitemap | Powered by
Please consider the environment before printing this page